In Search of Dimensions of Bildung: A Quantitative Approach

  • Armend Tahirsylaj Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway
  • Tobias Christoph Werler Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway


This exploratory study set out to quantitatively address the concept of Bildung and its associated dimensions of self-determination, co-determination and solidarity per the deliberations of Wolfgang Klafki. It used nationally representative European Social Survey (ESS) data from nine European countries representing Didaktik and curriculum education traditions. It was hypothesised that Bildung dimensions would be more present in Didaktik than curriculum countries. Applying mean comparison, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t-test and multivariate regression analyses as quantitative methods, the results provide empirical evidence that dimensions of Bildung are indeed more present in countries with Didaktik than in countries with curriculum traditions. Further research is needed to address some of the limitations of the present study.

Bildung, self-determination, co-determination, solidarity, European Social Survey (ESS)